GNU General Public License
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the
GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software - to make sure
the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's
software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is
covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make
sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you
receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs;
and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender
the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or
if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all
the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them
these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal
permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty
for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what
they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors'
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors
of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent this,
we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Terms and Conditions for Copying, Distributing and Modification
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may
be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or work,
and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a
work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope.
The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true
depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided
that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty;
keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients
of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection
in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program,
and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all
of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the
Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for
such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright
notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute
the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program
itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required
to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the
Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms,
do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as
part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License,
whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you;
rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the
Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form
under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms
of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than
your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code,
to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code.
(This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or
executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work,
complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files,
plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the
source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with
the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that
component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering
equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though
third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License.
Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate
your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will
not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission
to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this
License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your
acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program
or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a
license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions.
You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not
responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason
(not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise)
that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License.
If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other
pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or
indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely
from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the
section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest
validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software
distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions
to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system;
it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and
a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by
copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit
geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time.
Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License
which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a
version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are
different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation,
write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two
goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM
"AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY
WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL,
SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT
LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE
PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve
this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to
most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer
to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is
free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms
of the GNU General Public
published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
License, or (at your option) any later
This program is
distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have
received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this
program; if not, write to the Free
Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course,
the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu
items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer"
for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a
subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is
what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.